San Francisco to Require Vaccinations for City Workers

The city of San Francisco said on Wednesday that it would require all 35,000 of its employees to be vaccinated against Covid-19 or risk losing their jobs, making it one of the largest U.S. municipalities to impose a vaccine mandate for public workers.

The requirement will take effect once a Covid vaccine receives full authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. The vaccines are currently being used in the United States under emergency authorizations.

City officials said that the requirement would promote safety in municipal workplaces and among the general public, given that police officers, firefighters, building inspectors and other city workers come into regular contact with members of the community.

“With those two things in mind — the safety of our employees and the safety of the public we serve — we made this decision,” said Carol Isen, San Francisco’s director of human resources. “We believe this step is a simple one to take. It’s safe, it’s very effective, and it’s going to guarantee the safety of all.”

San Francisco has one of the highest vaccination rates of any major U.S. city, with 80 percent of residents 12 and older having received at least one dose and 70 percent fully vaccinated, Mayor London Breed said this month. Ms. Isen said that informal surveys of city workers — many of whom live in other municipalities where vaccination rates are lower — suggested that at least 60 percent were fully vaccinated.

Under the new policy, starting on Monday, city employees will be required to show proof of their vaccination status within 30 days. City officials said that they would redouble efforts to get shots to those who haven’t had them, while allowing workers to request exemptions on medical or religious grounds.

Both Pfizer and Moderna, the makers of the two most widely used Covid shots in the United States, have applied for full F.D.A. approval for their vaccines, but it is unclear when regulators will make a decision.

Elsewhere in the United States, vaccine mandates have been met with opposition. This week, more than 150 staff members at a Houston-area hospital resigned or were fired for not following a policy that requires employees to be vaccinated against Covid-19.

San Francisco officials said that employees who did not meet the vaccine requirement could lose their jobs but added that firings would be a last resort. A recent outbreak of the Delta variant among unvaccinated residents in nearby Marin County — where more than 80 percent of people are fully inoculated — shows the need for everyone to receive the shots, officials said.

“We see that Delta did make its way through a cluster of unvaccinated people, and so we just wanted to make this move quickly,” Ms. Isen said. “We hope our employees respond to this in the spirit in which it’s offered — not as a punishment, but as a safety measure.”

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White House to Send 3 Million Doses of J&J Vaccine to Brazil

The shipment is part of President Biden’s pledge to deliver 80 million doses overseas by the end of June.

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A Month Before the Olympics, How Is Japan Faring With Covid?

With a month to go until the Tokyo Olympics and a state of emergency freshly lifted in most of the country, Japan is seeing relatively low coronavirus case counts after a surge last month. But the country’s low vaccination rate, especially compared with other rich countries, and variants on the rise there have prompted some public health experts in recent weeks to express concerns about the Games or call for them to be canceled.

As athletes and coaches from almost every country in the world prepare to descend on Japan, where tens of thousands of residents will work at or attend the Games, just 7 percent of the country’s residents are fully vaccinated, compared with around a quarter of the population or more in most other rich countries. About 18 percent have received at least one shot, ranking Japan’s vaccination rate among the lowest of its peers and leaving the population vulnerable at a time when the Delta variant is on the rise and predicted to become dominant.

Japan’s low vaccination rate

Share of all residents who are fully vaccinated

Among richest 50 countries

Among richest 50 countries

Among richest 50 countries

Source: Our World in Data, World Bank

As cases surged toward a new peak in April and more-contagious variants began to take hold, the Japanese government declared a third state of emergency for Tokyo and other areas, eventually totaling 10 prefectures. This weekend, as cases continued to fall, Japan ended the emergency measures in most prefectures but will maintain some targeted restrictions in Tokyo and elsewhere. The states of emergency weren’t as strict as the total lockdowns seen in some other countries but meant restaurants were asked to shorten their hours, some shopping malls and movie theaters were asked to close and establishments were banned from selling alcohol.

Japan has managed to keep cases relatively low throughout the pandemic compared with other rich countries, though variants have made recent outbreaks harder to control. Even then, Japan’s peak in reported cases in May was comparatively low when adjusted for its population of 128 million, although Japan tested at a much lower rate than other countries. At its peak, Japan was reporting nearly 6,500 new coronavirus cases a day, on average, or about five new reported cases per day per 100,000 people. The United States, by contrast, reported more than 76 new cases per day per 100,000 at its worst point in January.

New cases in Japan per day, seven-day average

April 1,

Jan. 1,

June 21,




April 7

First state of emergency declared.

Jan. 7

Second state of emergency declared.

April 23

Third state of emergency declared.

June 20

Emergency measures eased.



6,000 cases

Source: Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University

So far, about one in every 161 people in Japan has tested positive for the virus. In the United States, for instance, that figure is about one in 10. Japan’s relatively low case count through the pandemic suggests the country’s level of natural immunity is also much lower than many other countries in the world.

Japan, like a few other countries that have fared relatively well throughout the pandemic, has had among the slowest vaccine rollouts of rich countries. One reason for the lagging start is that the country requires its own domestic vaccine trials, so Japan only authorized its first vaccine, the Pfizer shot, more than two months after the United Kingdom and United States had done so.

Experts also say the government failed to negotiate contracts that would have led to early vaccine doses, perhaps because its earlier success containing the virus led to a diminished sense of urgency around vaccines.

But with the Olympics on the horizon and pressure mounting — a poll in May found more than 80 percent of Japanese people surveyed did not want their home country to host the Games this summer — the Japanese vaccine campaign has sped up in recent weeks. After administering fewer than 100,000 doses a day in April, on average, Japan is now administering nearly one million shots per day.

After having used just Pfizer for the first months of the vaccine campaign, the government authorized two additional vaccines, Moderna and AstraZeneca, in late May. Of the two, only Moderna has been used so far within the country. And on June 17, all Japanese adults became eligible to receive a first vaccine shot at state-run sites. Until then, only those 65 and older could get vaccinated.

Japan’s vaccination campaign is speeding up

Feb. 17

June 21

May 21

Government authorizes Moderna and AstraZeneca vaccines. Pfizer was already available.

April 12

Those 65 and older become eligible for the vaccine.

Feb. 17

Two months after many other countries, Japan administers the first shots of the Covid vaccine to health care workers.

At least
one dose






Source: Our World in Data

In light of the accelerating vaccine rollout and declining coronavirus caseload, organizers of the Tokyo Olympics have decided to allow domestic spectators to attend the Games, with a cap of up to 10,000 fans per venue. Still, the public is not convinced: A poll over the weekend showed that 86 percent of those surveyed worry that there will be a rebound in cases once the Olympics are staged.

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